More. This holiday annually falls on October 10 marking the anniversary of beginning of the Ten Years' War. In 1869 a constitutional assembly was carried out in Camagüey with the presence of representatives of different areas that were participating in the uprising. War of Independence Anniversary celebrates the beginning of the first war of independence, that is the Ten Years' War, that began on October 10, 1868 and ended in 1878. Perhaps more important, they had won the sympathy of the vast majority of the Cuban people to their cause. The Spanish government perpetrated outrageous atrocities, such as the execution of 8 medical students, accused of desecration of the tomb of a Spanish newspaper man in 1871 and the execution of the insurgents of the steamship Virginius captured in international waters (53 in total, most of the crew) in 1873, known as The Virginius Affair. October 10 Independence Day: Día de la Independencia: This day in 1868, Carlos Manuel de … However, Spain was not about to let go of Cuba so easily, especially since it the most profitable of the Spanish colonies. Date in the current year: October 10, 2020. The mambises's fighting style was guerrilla warfare and they would use machetes as well as firearms. It began with the unsuccessful Ten Years’ War (Guerra de los Diez Años; 1868–78) and culminated in the U.S. intervention that ended the Spanish colonial presence in the Americas (see Spanish-American War). In the meantime, the rebels continued to control most of the countryside. Blas Villate, count of Valmaseda and Valeriano Weyler, known as the Weyler the Butcher, would be remembered forever as ruthless and cruel men executed a huge number of captured farmers and families of mambises (Cuban independence movement freedom fighters) or sent them to concentration camps (reconcentration policy) where some say tht 200,000 died, increasing the nationalist sentiment and incresing the hate felt towards Spain. Poet and journalist José Julián Martí, the ideological spokesman of the revolution, drew up plans for an invasion of Cuba while living in exile in New York City. October 28 – Memorial Day of Camilio Cienfuegos. Due to disagreements Céspedes was replaced with Cisneros. A second uprising, La Guerra Chiquita (“The Little War”), engineered by Calixto García, began in August 1879 but was quelled by superior Spanish forces in autumn 1880. In January 1898, a rebellion in Havana led the United States to send its warship, the USS Maine, in order to protect the country’s interests in Cuba. In order to deprive the revolutionaries of the rural support on which they depended, Weyler instituted a brutal program of “reconcentration,” forcing hundreds of thousands of Cubans into camps in the towns and cities, where they died of starvation and disease by the tens of thousands. He was captured and later killed by Spanish troops in 1877. The next serious attempt took place in 1850 commanded by Narciso López, who had conspired against Spain in New York. Your democratic system was overthrown by a military dictator at the middle of the last century. Please scroll down to end of page for previous years' dates. The domain of the Arawakan-speaking Taino, who had displaced even earlier inhabitants, Cuba was claimed by Christopher Columbus for Spain in 1492. 10 / 11 / 2008. This holiday annually falls on October 10 marking the anniversary of beginning of the Ten Years' War. Two years later the pact of Zanjón was signed and the Ten Year War ended until the next attempt to gain the Cuban independence. Independence Day is a public holiday in Cuba observed on 10th October. On the next day Cespedes released the 10th of October Manifesto, a declaration of independence*. Independence Day is a public holiday in Cuba observed on 10th October. “Citizens, the sun that you see rising over the Turquino peak has come to light up the first day of Cuban freedom and independence,” he declared. But that day was different. The aim of the assembly was to provide juridical union and to become better organized. Voter fraud was rampant and two of the three candidates for president dropped from the race. Feeling no loyalty to this new regime, this galvanized the independence movement in many Spanish colonies in South America and Central America. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In 1901, the Platt Amendment was proposed, giving Cuba the choice to become a territory of the United States or remain under military occupation. Sign up to receive a weekly email update on forthcoming public holidays around the world in your inbox every Sunday. Spain was also affected by the crisis and decided to raise the taxes. Historical events for the 10th of October. Cuba was to gain independence, but the island was not part of the negotiations for the treaty. The struggle of the Cuban people continues. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Despite his unsuccessful attempt, the seed for revolution was planted. By continuing to use our site you are giving your consent for us to use cookies. The next episode is known in the world as the Ten Years War, its backdrop was the world crisis of 1868 and Cuba's desperate situation due to the modernization of many sugar producing countries that upgraded to steam machines against Cuba's old slave labour industry. Although the war was hard for Cuba, it didn't gain independence from Spain till 1898. On October 10, 1868, a sugarcane plantation owner in eastern Cuba, Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, called for Cuba’s independence from and for the abolition of slavery. The Spanish course of action after an attempt to reach an agreement with the rebel forces failed, was a cruel war with the aim of complete annihilation and took extreme measures such as the execution of males over 15 years old found outside their plantations or homes without justification, rebels who were caught would be executed right away and many other cruel enactments. The Day of Cuban Culture also celebrates the date when the ‘mambi’ or Cuban independence army under the command of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes freed the eastern city of Bayamo. Spanish colonial administration was corrupt, inefficient, and inflexible. Despite his unsuccessful attempt, the seed for revolution was planted. On October 28 1959, Camilio Cienfuegos died under mysterious circumstances. On Cuban Independence Day, I extend my warm regards and best wishes to the people of Cuba. Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y del Castillo’s call to rebellion, which initiated the Ten Years’ War, was issued from this town near his plantation of La Demajagua, on October 10, 1868, against Spain, in the name of the newly organized Junta Revolucionaria de Cuba. It began with the unsuccessful Ten Years’ War (1868–78), continued with the Cuban War of Independence (begun in 1895), and culminated in the U.S. intervention (the Spanish-American War) … Céspedes had the support of some landowners, whose main interest was economic and political independence from Spain, whereas the farmers and labourers were more concerned with the immediate abolition of slavery and greater political power for the common man. They managed to conquer Cárdenas, but they did not achieve popular support and had to abandon the island. By January 1896 rebel forces controlled most of the island, and the Spanish government replaced Martínez Campos with Gen. Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau, who soon became known as El Carnicero (“The Butcher”). . The demands of sugar—labourers, capital, machines, technical skills, and markets—strained ethnic relations, aggravated political and economic differences between metropolis and colony, and laid the foundation for the break with Spain in 1898. Though this first war of independence ended with surrender to the Spanish in May 1878, in the longer term it proved to a key event in Cuba's struggle for independence from Spain, which finally came in December 1898. On Cuban Independence Day, I extend my warm regards and best wishes to the people of Cuba. Nevertheless, October 10, 1868 became a turning point in the history of the Cuban people. History of Cuban Independence Day Cuba’s fight for freedom has been long and arduous. Havana, October 10 (RHC)-- Cuban President Miguel Díaz-Canel calls this October 10th, the 152nd anniversary of the beginning of the only revolution that has existed in our nation of which we are worthy to continue. Independence Day is celebrated on October 10th each year to remember the beginning of Cuba’s struggle in 1868 to free itself from Spanish colonial power. By the end of 1897, the Spanish army had virtually been defeated by the Cuban Liberation Army. Dissatisfied with the corrupt and inefficient Spanish administration, lack of political representation, and high taxes, Cubans in the eastern provinces united under the wealthy planter Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, whose declaration of independence in October 1868, the Grito de Yara (“Cry of Yara”), signaled the beginning of the Ten Years’ War, in which 200,000 lives were lost. Havana, October 20 (RHC) -- Cubans celebrate Cuban Culture Day on Sunday to commemorate October 20, 1868, the date in which Cuba’s National Anthem was sung for the first time. In 1878 the Cuban government dissolved and peace negotiations began between the last of the Spanish colonies in America and the motherland. Updates? Although Martí was killed (and martyred) in battle about one month after initiation of the invasion on April 11, 1895, Gómez and Antonio Maceo employed sophisticated guerrilla tactics in leading the revolutionary army to take control of the eastern region. For quite a while nobody was able to declare themselves the victor, however the scales would later tip to Spain's side. Office Holidays provides calendars with dates and information on public holidays and bank holidays in key countries around the world.

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